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Squapo Tigers, Bistro M2, Öttinger Str, Eggenfelden. Bianca Augsberger. Zwergenladies & Friends, Treffpunkt 24, Lindhof Str, Eggenfelden. refrancorum bur adimerce credrmur panor ripenaonabur squapo brera II T 5 T. n terschiedene Hånde gegangen, und in unterschiednen Umständen gewesen. er dem mit Recht aufgebrachten Squapo alle erforderliche Genugthuung gåbe. Da um 11 Uhr sich alles Kriegesgetümmel gånze lich gelegt hatte, so ließ ich.

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Let's Play Sleeping Dogs [Blind] 02 - The Ballad Of El Suapo

His magnum opus, Either-Or , is an exceptional work. I struggled my way through it, much as I imagine I would struggle to climb Mount Everest — through nebulous passages, up windy roads that sometimes narrowed, sometimes digressed into unexpected territory, always challenged my footing and my stamina.

But on nearly every page there was a striking view to take in. I underlined sentence after sentence that made me stop, wonder, marvel; things that made me frustrated, impressed, enlightened, confused.

It was tiring to read at times, perhaps even tiresome, because Kierkegaard would drone on and on, alighting on every possible angle to every topic.

The first part — Either — is an ostensible defense of the aesthetic perspective on life, consisting of a number of texts, different in genres and themes, which celebrate constant change and sensory experiences.

In the second part - Or , he criticizes this a superficial take on life and argues for the ethical perspective: the nourishment of the soul and not just of the senses.

Because of their cerebral compatibility, I wonder what Kierkegaard would have made of Oscar Wilde, and vice versa. When I say cerebral compatibility, I mean their extreme genius, their willingness to hold two opposing viewpoints at the same time, their ability to reference other works of literature ad infinitum, their linguistic superiority and wordsmithery.

Personally, I opt for a both-and one an expression which we have in Danish. I tried to read a minimum of ten pages at a time, but it turned out to be a maximum.

I often went back to reread a sentence which often began three lines above to glean the exact meaning. Also the inflections of verbs were different, and his punctuation — run-on clauses with only commas to separate them — would make me breathless.

The Germanic capitalization of nouns was a detail in the bigger picture. There was much I marvelled at, much I admired but also quite a bit I disagreed with.

His view of women, for instance; he seems stuck in the 19th century women are not born to work but are flighty, imaginative creatures, etc.

Moreover, his reliance on God is a far cry from the rather a-religious Denmark of today and sometimes seemed at odds with his sharp, intellectual observations.

Though he is often considered the father of existentialism, his particular branch was more religious than the later existentialists of the 20th century.

Anxiety, for instance, is produced by our reflecting on things and as such, he claims, thus different from sorrow.

It is always connected to time in the sense that you cannot be anxious about the present but only about what is past or what is in the future.

Sorrow, on the other hand is bound to the present. This was something I pondered at length and which, like many of his other points and arguments, raised questions rather than gave any clear answers.

Another point he made, which I immediately took to heart, is that we must not be too busy. Nobody returns from the dead, nobody has entered the world without crying; no one asks you when you want in, no one asks you when you want out.

An individual who hopes for eternal life is in a sense an unhappy individual insofar as he relinquishes the present, but is not in a stricter sense unhappy because he is present within this hope.

Can you long for what you already possess? Yes, when you imagine that in the next moment you may no longer possess it. One of Denmark's three literary triumvirs, if you ask me, the other two being Hans Christian Andersen and Karen Blixen.

Recommended for the patient and philosophically-minded reader. View all 23 comments. One world. One destination.

But two different strokes for two very different types of folks. The Eithers - and the Ors. Will they both get to their destination?

Yet both are an accepted part of modern reality. Riddle me that, Zeno! All bets are off, friends! So who gets the Real Trophy first - the Eithers or the Ors?

And is it worth it to know? Get used to it. And this book is an elusively allusive deconstruction of the inner dialectics of that world.

For they just wanted Freedom. That carries an enormous price, friends, just so you know Kierkegaard, though, tried to tell us postmoderns that only the Truth will set us Free, and so he has been relegated to the dustbin of oblivion by the Sleep of Society.

For Kierkegaard will take you on a marvellous trip. Feb 27, Roy Lotz rated it really liked it Shelves: eurotrip , footnotes-to-plato.

Of course, a critic resembles a poet to a hair, except that he has no anguish in his heart, no music on his lips.

This is one of those rare unclassifiable books, whose genre was born the day it was published and which has since left no heirs.

Kierkegaard gives us what appears, at first, to be a sort of literary experiment: the papers of two imaginary characters, found inside the escritoire by a third imaginary character.

Specifically, Kierkegaard uses these two personages to juxtapose the aesthetic with the ethical modes of life, presumably asking the reader to choose between them.

Part 1, by A, gives us the aesthetic man. Part 2 is more focused, consisting of two long letters sent by B who is supposed to be a middle-aged judge to A, both exhorting the latter to turn towards a more ethical view of life.

The styles of the two writers are suitably different: A is excitable, hyperbolic, and aphoristic, while B is more staid and focused.

Nevertheless, it is never difficult to tell that Kierkegaard is the true author. Neatly summarizing the difference in perspectives would be difficult, since Kierkegaard tends to be flexible with his own definitions.

In the first, A is concerned with attaining a maximum of pleasure. He is not a hedonist, and is not very interested in sex.

Rather, he is interested in avoiding boredom by carefully shaping his developing relationship like a well-plotted novel, ensuring that each emotion is felt to the utmost.

The judge, by contrast, sees marriage as far preferable to seduction, since it is through commitments like marriage that the inner self develops and becomes fully actualized.

While the aesthete prefers to live in the moment, the ethical man notes that, even if every moment is novel, the self remains the same.

Change requires commitment. Interpreting the book is difficult. Are we being asked to make a choice in values? Such a choice could have no basis but chance or personal whim, since no pre-existing value could guide us between two incompatible value-systems.

This, you might say, is the existentialist interpretation of the book: the primacy of choice over values. Yet other options are available. There is also the unmistakable autobiographical element in this writing, since Kierkegaard had not long before broken off his own engagement.

This is just to scrape the surface of possibility. On the one hand, this book is highly rich and suggestive, with brilliant passages buried amid piles of less compelling material.

Since no clear message emerges, and since there are no arguments to guide the way, the book can easily yield interpretations consonant with pre-conceived opinions.

In other words, it is hard to me to imagine somebody being convinced to change their mind by reading this. But Kierkegaard can perhaps better be likened to a good art critic than to a systematic philosopher, for the value in his writing consists more in illuminating comments than in a final conclusion.

At times he rises to commanding eloquence; but so often he seems to wallow in confusing and repetitive intricacies. More to the point, I find the general tenor of his writing to be anti-rationalist; and this is exemplified in the complete lack of argument in his writings.

But nobody could deny that, all told, this is an extraordinary book and a worthy addition to the philosophical tradition.

View all 9 comments. Nov 09, Brent McCulley rated it it was amazing Shelves: philosophy. Easily one of the best books I have read this year, as this year nears the end, I can say without a doubt that Kierkegaard was truly a genius.

It is not without purpose that my mind immediately rushes to Nietzsche pithy aphorism on genius wherein he writes, "Every deep thinker is more afraid of being understood than being misunderstood.

In the latter case, perhaps his vanity suffers, but the former hurts his heart, his sympathy, which always says, "Alas, why do you want to have it as hard as I d Easily one of the best books I have read this year, as this year nears the end, I can say without a doubt that Kierkegaard was truly a genius.

In the latter case, perhaps his vanity suffers, but the former hurts his heart, his sympathy, which always says, "Alas, why do you want to have it as hard as I did?

Kierkegaard knew that he was a genius, yet he also knew that he was misunderstood. This seems to me not to be a accidental product of the Danish culture's ability to exegete Kierkegaard properly, but rather, an intentional property postulated by Kierkegaard himself within his writings for the sole purpose of protecting "his heart, his sympathy" as Nietzsche said.

While reading through the "Either" part, I felt ecstatic, aroused, and excited, as the aesthetic appeal and philosophical dialectic that A engages in truly is seductive.

The first portion is a bunch of aphorisms whereof all are highly quotable and attractive, and standard Kierkegaard. He then deals with the dialectic progression of the erotic understanding in music, and analyzes Mozart among others.

Kierkegaard then deals with the Ancient's understanding of tragedy juxtaposed to the modern understanding of tragedy.

In "Shadowgraphs," Kierkegaard deals with the aesthetic elements of theater and the psychological development of the aforesaid in the subject.

My two favorite essays, however, are the next two which are entitled "The Unhappiest One" and "Crop Rotation. Both are written so fantastically that it hard not to agree with everything he says.

My understanding of Either could only have developed after reading Or , and it's understandable why Kierkegaard got so mad seeing Danish bookstores lined with the former whilst the latter went neglected compared to the former.

They must be read in conjunction with one another, because all the ideas presented in both are not necessarily Kierkegaard's own ideas: this is a partial reason for the pseudonyms.

Since this was Kierkegaard's first major work, written mostly in Germany in a short amount of time while he was attending the Schelling lectures, the breakup with Regine, his then fiancee, would have been extremely fresh.

The aesthetic part of Either seems to be Kierkegaard's self-justification of the breakup, rationalizing that it was done in protection of Regine, and also, at the consummation of what Kierkegaard calls "first love.

Certainly, then, The Seducer's diary can be read in a but of an autobiographical flair, and indeed it writes like one, although often times Kierkegaard flips the subjects around.

What is more interesting is when I got to the Or portion. Written by a venerable Judge Wilhelm, they are two letters of correspondence to A, as in the 'novel' both the Judge and A are good friends, and A often comes over frequently to dine and spend time with the Judge and his wife.

The Judge systematically tries to refute the aesthetic in each theory postulated, and ultimately show the validity of marriage ethically and also aesthetically.

So far, then, it is not a matter of the choice of some thing, not a matter of the reality of the thing chosen, but of the reality of choosing.

It is this, though, that is decisive and what I shall try to awaken you to Through the absolute choice, then, the ethical is posited, but from that it by no means follows that the aesthetic is excluded.

In the ethical the personality is centered in itself; the aesthetic is thus excluded absolutely, or it is excluded as the absolute, but relatively it always stays behind.

The personality, through choosing itself, chooses itself ethically and excludes the aesthetic absolutely; but since it is, after all, he himself the person chooses and through choosing himself does not become another nature but remains himself, the whole of the aesthetic returns in its relativity" pp.

This is utterly brilliant, and to be sure, much of what Kierkegaard writes through the Judge are philosophical ideas that are further developed in his later works such as the movement from the aesthetic to the religious to the ethical in his Stages on Life's Way , and also the idea of choosing the self which lies in the infinite or absolute in The Sickness unto Death.

The idea that Judge defends from the above, and indeed throughout his two essays to A, is that the aesthetic cannot be chosen as the absolute, because it is not a choice at all, but rather a defiance or privation away from the absolute, and hence because the self is lost, it follows that the self cannot choose the aesthetic since their is no self to do the choosing.

Yet, when one postulates the ethical as the absolute, the self chooses absolutely because the choice is choosing yourself, which only can be found in the ethical, and because the ethical is the absolute, and the self is chosen, the aesthetic no thereby nullified as A would like to suppose, but is in fact affirmed, albeit in the relative sense of the subject.

And so it follows that marriage, which is the ethical choice, affirms both the ethical and the aesthetic, the moral and the sensual. What is so paradoxical about all this is that Kierkegaard is writing this only because he was able to since he broke off engagement with his previous fiancee, Regine Olson.

Affirming the ethical validity of marriage, writing as the Judge, only after he denied it's validity practically by rejecting Regine.

Incidentally enough, Kierkegaard would later regret not marrying, which makes his aphorism in the beginning of the book all the more poignant and chagrin.

If you marry, you will regret it; if you do not marry, you will also regret it; if you marry or if you do not marry, you will regret both; whether you marry or you do not marry, you will regret both" p.

View 1 comment. Jan 28, Sean Blake rated it it was amazing Shelves: religion , philosophy , fiction. Soren Kierkegaard writes like a poet, which makes his philosophical writings so entertaining and enlightening to read.

A guide to a meaningful existence, Kierkegaard explores the aesthetic and ethical ideologies of life through two characters: A , the aesthetician and Judge Wilhelm , the ethicist.

But every one would blame a man who was blind from drunkenness. In all cases, the vices that are blamed must be in our own power. Let us consider the several virtues, beginning with courage.

VI: Courage is the mean between fear and confidence. The brave man should always fear disgrace, he who does not is shameless.

Poverty and disease we perhaps ought not to fear, for they are not due to man himself. But which death? Surely the noblest; death in battle, which is honoured by the state.

VII: The brave man is he who nobly faces what he fears for the right reason, in the right manner and at the right time.

But to do this to excess is rashness, to do it too little is cowardice. VIII: Courage is within the realm of bravery, as are five other things First is the courage of citizen-soldiers.

This is nearest to true courage, for it comes from virtue, desire for honour and fear of disgrace, which is noble.

So noble that we may, to some extent, include even conscripted soldiers. Second, there is Socrates' idea that courage is knowledge. This is not entirely correct, for a knowledgeable soldier may be still a coward.

Third, passionate enthusiasm is often thought a form of courage. But even wild beasts have such. Fourth, the sanguine man resembles the brave man.

But his willingness to face sudden alarms comes only from his nature, and not from any noble deliberation. Fifth, men who are ignorant of danger appear to be brave, but only by their ignorance.

IX: The brave man fears death and wounds, yet still choose the noble deeds of war, for it is not the exercise of virtue, which is pleasant, but its end.

So much for courage. X: Now, temperance is concerned with bodily pleasures. But we do not call the music-lover, the art-lover or the lover of perfumes intemperate.

The grossest pleasures are those of touch and taste, for even dogs enjoy the taste of the hare. XI: Some desires seem to be universal, such as desire for food and sex.

But different people desire different foods and have differing sexual preferences. Such natural appetites err only when they are done to excess, like the "belly-mad" glutton.

But individual pleasures can go wrong in several ways. People may delight in the wrong things, with too great an intensity, or in the wrong way.

To do all three is plainly culpable self-indulgence. The temperate man finds the middle position, he desires the right things in moderation.

XII: Self-indulgence is a more voluntary fault than cowardice, for the first is actuated by pleasure, the second by pain. Self-indulgence is childish, and just as the obedient child should live as his tutor directs, so the temperate man should be guided in his passions by his rational intellect.

I: Let us now speak of liberality, or generosity. Liberality is concerned with the use of wealth, prodigality is an excess of liberality, while meanness is its deficiency.

II: Next, we will discuss magnificence, which is also concerned with wealth, but on a grander scale. A deficiency in magnificence is niggardliness, excess is tasteless vulgarity.

Giving grandly requires artistic skill to choose the fitting expenditure that will bring honour without seeming to show-off.

It is always honourable to pay for services to the gods, or furnish one's house well, but each case the greatness is relative to the cause; even a simple oil-flask can be a great gift to a child.

To err in magnificence is a vice, if a harmless ones. III: Proper pride and self-respect seems a worthy thing.

He who thinks himself worthy of greatness, being unworthy is vain. The man who thinks himself worthy of less than his real worth is unduly humble.

The man with proper pride has nobility and goodness of character. He will react with moderation to good or evil fortune and seems somewhat disdainful of power and wealth.

He readily confers benefits on others, but is ashamed to receive them. He is a man of few deeds, but great ones, who speaks and acts openly and quickly forgets wrongs.

He avoids gossip, and is sparing of praise and blame. Finally, a measured step, a deep voice and unhurried speech all tell of proper pride, while shrillness and speed show up a man as over-hasty.

The vain man, on the other hand, will adorn himself in fancy clothes and expect praise for mere good-luck.

The man of undue humility robs himself of what he truly deserves, but cannot be thought bad, only mistaken.

IV: As with liberality, it seems that honour may be desired more than is right, or less. We blame both the ambitious man for seeking honour more than is right, and the unambitious man as not willing to be honoured even for noble reasons.

But in this case, the extremes seem to be contradictories because the mean does not have a name. V: Good temper is the mean with respect to anger.

The man who is angry at the right things, with the right people, in the right way, is praiseworthy. If he errs at all, it is to have too little anger at things worthy of anger.

Hot-tempered people get angry too hastily, but, being in the open, their anger ceases just as quickly, which is the best thing about them.

Bitter, sulky people, repress their angry passions, making them troublesome to themselves and to their friends. But, to err a little from the path of righteous anger is not blameworthy.

In fact, we sometimes praise a deficiency of anger as 'patience', and a slight excess as 'manly'. Enough, now, of anger.

VI: In daily life, some people obsequiously agree with everyone, while others churlishly oppose everything. Such behaviour is plainly culpable.

The middle way here has no name, though it closely resembles friendliness. Such an amiable person is kindly, not only to his friends, but also without regard to whether he likes or dislikes someone.

VII: The mean between boastfulness and understatement has no name. Truthfulness is noble, but is only praiseworthy when a man practices it equally regarding tiny things as well as when much is at stake.

The boaster, on the other hand, seems futile rather than bad as long as he seeks only reputation. But when he boasts of valuable skills he has not, such as the powers of a clairvoyant or physician, he becomes a very ugly character.

The mock-modest man seems more attractive. He disdains the things that bring reputation, as Socrates used to do.

VIII: In the art of conversation, too, there is a mean. Those who will carry any joke too far and are willing to commit slander for the sake of a laugh are vulgar buffoons.

Those who can neither tell a joke nor accept one are boorish and dull. The man who finds the middle state can listen well and talk with cultured wit.

This is like comparing the jolly ribaldry of old comedies with the smutty innuendo of today. IX: Shame, the fear of dishonour, is not a virtue but more a kind of feeling.

It is worthy only in the young, who live too much by desires and need the restraint of shame. Let us discuss justice. I: By justice, men generally mean that character that disposes men to act justly, and injustice the opposite.

Faculties, or abilities, grant skill that can be used either good or ill. But a state of character, such as health, does not produce its opposite, illness.

Thus, it is useful to know of character by knowing of its contrary. Lawlessness and avarice are thought unjust, so that law-abiding and fairness is thought just.

Since avarice is though unjust, so, to some extent, justice is concerned with goods. Men pray for good things, but they should not- they ought rather to pray for that which is good for them, for different things are good for different people.

Justice itself is complete virtue in its fullest sense, and alone of the virtues, is directed towards others. II: It is clear that a man who commits adultery from desire is merely licentious, but one who does so for gain is unjust.

Equally, the wickedness of violence is caused by anger, and of desertion in battle by cowardice, but these, too, only become unjust when done for gain.

We see that particular injustices are concerned with gain of money or honour, while universal justice is found in the virtuous conduct.

It can be said that injustice equates to unlawfulness, but the two do not always correspond. Particular acts of justice are concerned with the division of money or honour, or with rectifying relations between men.

The rectifying sort begins in two ways: voluntarily as with sale, loans or letting , or involuntarily and secretly as with theft, adultery, enslavement, robbery or murder.

III: That justice is a sort of middle way hardly needs argument to support it. Justice is a sort of proportion, an equality of ratios where A:B is equal to B:C.

This, what mathematicians call 'geometric proportion', is one kind of justice. IV: The remaining kind of justice is rectificatory, in that it corrects errors of distribution.

This happens in transactions. When someone has received injustice, such as a blow or some inequality of division, then the judge, like a personification of justice, tries to restore equality by imposing a penalty, to take from the greater to give to the less.

V: Some, like the Pythagoreans, think that simple reciprocity is justice, but this does not fit with either distributive or rectificatory justice.

For example, if someone were hit by an official, it would be wrong to hit back, but if they strike an official it is right that they be hit back and punished as well.

But it is true that fair exchange depends on reciprocity, that is why we have the temple of the Graces. Proportional return requires 'cross-conjunction': let A be a builder, B a shoemaker and C a house and D a shoe.

For the shoemaker to get a house it is necessary that there be some agreed proportion of the value of a house in a shoe.

Without this, there can be no fair exchange. There must be one standard by which all commodities are measured. This is money, which does not exist in nature, but by our custom.

So much for our account of justice. VI: It is possible to act unjustly without being an unjust man? A man may lie with a woman knowing who she is not out of choice, but under the influence of passion.

Stealing does not make a man a thief, nor adultery an adulterer. Our enquiry is of political justice, which is found only among those whose mutual relations are controlled by law.

The ruler is the guarantor of justice, and it is when he is dissatisfied with honour and dignity as his reward, but takes more than he merits that he becomes a despot.

There cannot be injustice against ones own chattels or children, or towards oneself. There can be justice between husband and wife, and within families.

But this is not political justice. VII: Political justice is either natural or legal. The natural is that which is the same everywhere, independent of people's opinions, while laws can differ greatly.

Among the gods, all justice is presumably immutable, but in our world, all things are subject to change, but there is only one natural form of government, namely the best.

VIII: If a man seized the hand of another and used it to strike a third man, then the second man would not have acted voluntarily.

Thus, there are three kinds of injury. One that happens contrary to reasonable expectation is a misadventure. That which might be expected but is done without malice is a mistake.

Those who commit these have done wrong, but may not be unjust or wicked. Only the wrong done on purpose is unjust and wicked.

Mistakes committed in ignorance and from ignorance are pardonable; but those committed in ignorance but through some unnatural passion are inexcusable.

IX: Consider Euripides' lines: I slew my mother, that's my tale in brief, By will of both, or both unwilling? Is it possible to suffer injustice willingly?

At first this seems an odd notion, but people can be treated justly when they do not will it. So, to the formula 'doing harm to another, with knowledge of the other, of the instrument and of the manner', must we add 'against the will of the other'?

But no-one wills what he does not think to be good. Even if he gives his goods away, it is he who chooses so.

It is clear that being treated unjustly must be involuntary. There remain two problems- is the person who gives too large a share or the one who receives it the guilty one?

True, the equitable man tends to take less than his due, but he may gain in status and nobility. Also, can an inanimate object, or a slave at his master's command, 'do' what is unjust without acting unjustly?

But legal and natural justice differ. To commit adultery or assault or pass a bribe is clearly wrong. But as in medicine, where anyone can know what hellebore is and what surgery is, the skill lies in using them in a particular way.

X: Sometimes we commend the equitable as 'good', but at other times it seems unjust. But, at least in laws, there is no contradiction here, for the error lies not in the law but in the nature of the case.

So when an exception case arises, which the law-maker has not anticipated, then it is right that the judge act as the law-maker would have, had he known the circumstances.

Equity, though just, is not better than natural justice, but, like the flexible rulers Lesbian architects use, it allows laws to be framed to fit the circumstances.

XI: Whether a man can treat himself unjustly should now be evident. If a man kills himself, he is acting unjustly. But towards whom? It is towards the State that man owes duty, so if he takes his own life the State properly dishonours him.

But no one can commit adultery with his own wife, or burgle his own house. It is clear that both being treated unjustly and acting unjustly are evils, for the first is to have less and the second to have more than the mean.

But acting unjustly is the worse, for it is voluntary. This completes our analysis of justice. I: We have already said that one should aim at the mean between deficiency and excess, as right principle dictates.

But if you grasped only this, you would have no knowledge of how to apply it. Hence, we must discover what the right principle is.

Let us begin by noting that the soul has a rational and an irrational part. And we may likewise divide the rational into the scientific, which deals of things invariable, and the calculative, which deals with the variable.

II: In the soul three things control actions; sensation, intellect and appetite. Since moral virtue involves choice, and choice is deliberate appetite then, if the choice is to be good, the reasoning behind it must be true and the desire right.

The origin of action is choice, and the origin of choice is appetite and purposive reasoning. But no process is set going by mere thought- only by practical thought.

Anyone who makes anything makes if for a purpose relative to a particular end. But action is an end in itself, and man is the causative union of reason and appetite.

No past event is an object of choice; hence, Agathon was right to say: One thing is denied even to God To undo what has been already done III: To look further back, we can say that there are five ways in which the soul arrives at truth by affirmation or denial; by art, science, prudence, wisdom and intuition.

Judgement and opinion need not be included as they can often err. Science aims at knowledge of the eternal and is supposed to be teachable.

But all teaching starts from what is known either by induction of first principles or by deduction from those first principles.

This is our description of scientific knowledge. IV: Art, or craft skill, is concerned with bringing something into existence, the cause of which is reasoned in the producer not the product.

Since production is different to action, art is not concerned with action but has an element of chance, as Agathon says: Art loves chance, and chance loves art.

V: To understand prudence, or practical wisdom, we may consider what type of person we call prudent. A prudent man is able to deliberate rightly, not just about particular things like health, but about the good life generally.

As prudence is not a fixed thing, then it cannot be a science. It does not aim at production, so it is not an art. Prudence, then, is a virtue, and one which is of the calculative, reasoning part of the soul.

But it is not merely a rational state, for such can be forgotten while prudence cannot. VI: Let us consider intuition. All science comes from certain first principles, so it follows that those principles cannot themselves be comprehended by science, or by art, or prudence or even by wisdom.

The state of mind which apprehends first principles is intuition. VII: When we call Phidias a wise sculptor or Polyclitus a wise portraitist we mean that they have artistic wisdom.

But some people are not wise 'at something' but wise without any qualification. Wisdom, therefore, seems the most finished form of knowledge.

Wisdom is scientific and intuitive knowledge of what is by nature most precious. That is why a wise person can often be more effective in action than one with specialist knowledge.

VIII: Prudence and political science are the same state of mind, but they are realised differently. The man who knows and provides for his own interests is called prudent, but politicians are considered meddling busybodies.

However, it is impossible to secure one's own good without a sound political structure around you.

Prudence is not science, as we have said, because it apprehends the last step, while intuition apprehends the first definitions. IX: We must try to grasp the nature of deliberation, for it is not the same thing as enquiry.

Neither is it conjecture, for that is a rapid thing while deliberation takes some time. It is true that one who deliberates badly makes errors, but a wicked person can deliberate well to achieve an evil end.

So good deliberation is that which succeeds in relation to a particular end. X: There is also understanding, which is not the same as scientific knowledge or opinion.

Nor is it like prudence, which deals of what one should or should not do. Understanding only makes judgements, for there is no difference between good and bad understanding.

XI: What is called judgement is the faculty of judging correctly what is equitable. And equitable judgement is sympathetic judgement.

All these states of mind naturally tend to converge so that we call a person understanding, prudent or intelligent more or less indifferently.

We should, however, give more attention to the opinions of older, more experienced people, even without demonstrations of fact, because age brings with it intuitive reason and judgement.

XII: What is the use of the intellectual virtues? They are concerned with the just and the admirable and the good, but knowing them does not mean that they are put into practice.

Just as it is possible to know medicine or physical training without practising it. First, wisdom and prudence, being virtues, must be desirable in themselves, even without any result.

Next, they do, in fact, produce a result- wisdom is a virtue which makes a person happy by the possession of it. We ought also to consider cleverness, which is the ability to achieve an aim.

The aim can be noble or base, which is why we may call both prudent and unscrupulous people clever.

Prudence is not quite the same, for insight cannot lead to prudence without some virtue. XIII: We must now reconsider virtue.

If we have a disposition towards justice or temperance or courage, then we have it from our birth, but moral qualities are acquired.

Some people, including Socrates, claimed that all the virtues are forms of prudence. But we must go further and say that virtue is not merely a state conforming to the right principle, but one that is inseparable from it.

At the same time, prudence does not use wisdom, but allows it to be realised. To say otherwise would be like saying that the State controls the gods because it directs rituals.

I: There are three states of character to be avoided: vice, incontinence and brutishness. The contrary of vice is virtue and of incontinence is continence.

The opposite of brutishness is something like superhuman virtue, as Homer says of Hector:. But as divinity is rare among men, so is true brutishness, though it is commonest among non-Greeks.

We must now discuss incontinence, effeminacy and endurance. II: Socrates said that nobody consciously acts against what is best, other than through ignorance.

This is inconsistent with the evidence, for we see that men often act out of the impulse of desire and against their knowledge and judgement.

Again, the sophists trap people by knotty arguments into believing what is good is bad. III: We must consider whether incontinent people act knowingly or unknowingly- whether the incontinent man is so because of his circumstances or his attitude.

Firstly, for a man to do wrong without reflecting on his own knowledge is very different from acting with that knowledge.

Secondly, there are two types of practical knowledge that act as the starting-point to actions. These are the universal and the particular premises.

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Audible Download Audiobooks. DPReview Digital Photography. Nevertheless, it is never difficult to tell that Kierkegaard is the true author.

Neatly summarizing the difference in perspectives would be difficult, since Kierkegaard tends to be flexible with his own definitions.

In the first, A is concerned with attaining a maximum of pleasure. He is not a hedonist, and is not very interested in sex.

Rather, he is interested in avoiding boredom by carefully shaping his developing relationship like a well-plotted novel, ensuring that each emotion is felt to the utmost.

The judge, by contrast, sees marriage as far preferable to seduction, since it is through commitments like marriage that the inner self develops and becomes fully actualized.

While the aesthete prefers to live in the moment, the ethical man notes that, even if every moment is novel, the self remains the same. Change requires commitment.

Interpreting the book is difficult. Are we being asked to make a choice in values? Such a choice could have no basis but chance or personal whim, since no pre-existing value could guide us between two incompatible value-systems.

This, you might say, is the existentialist interpretation of the book: the primacy of choice over values. Yet other options are available.

There is also the unmistakable autobiographical element in this writing, since Kierkegaard had not long before broken off his own engagement.

This is just to scrape the surface of possibility. On the one hand, this book is highly rich and suggestive, with brilliant passages buried amid piles of less compelling material.

Since no clear message emerges, and since there are no arguments to guide the way, the book can easily yield interpretations consonant with pre-conceived opinions.

In other words, it is hard to me to imagine somebody being convinced to change their mind by reading this. But Kierkegaard can perhaps better be likened to a good art critic than to a systematic philosopher, for the value in his writing consists more in illuminating comments than in a final conclusion.

At times he rises to commanding eloquence; but so often he seems to wallow in confusing and repetitive intricacies. More to the point, I find the general tenor of his writing to be anti-rationalist; and this is exemplified in the complete lack of argument in his writings.

But nobody could deny that, all told, this is an extraordinary book and a worthy addition to the philosophical tradition. View all 9 comments.

Nov 09, Brent McCulley rated it it was amazing Shelves: philosophy. Easily one of the best books I have read this year, as this year nears the end, I can say without a doubt that Kierkegaard was truly a genius.

It is not without purpose that my mind immediately rushes to Nietzsche pithy aphorism on genius wherein he writes, "Every deep thinker is more afraid of being understood than being misunderstood.

In the latter case, perhaps his vanity suffers, but the former hurts his heart, his sympathy, which always says, "Alas, why do you want to have it as hard as I d Easily one of the best books I have read this year, as this year nears the end, I can say without a doubt that Kierkegaard was truly a genius.

In the latter case, perhaps his vanity suffers, but the former hurts his heart, his sympathy, which always says, "Alas, why do you want to have it as hard as I did?

Kierkegaard knew that he was a genius, yet he also knew that he was misunderstood. This seems to me not to be a accidental product of the Danish culture's ability to exegete Kierkegaard properly, but rather, an intentional property postulated by Kierkegaard himself within his writings for the sole purpose of protecting "his heart, his sympathy" as Nietzsche said.

While reading through the "Either" part, I felt ecstatic, aroused, and excited, as the aesthetic appeal and philosophical dialectic that A engages in truly is seductive.

The first portion is a bunch of aphorisms whereof all are highly quotable and attractive, and standard Kierkegaard.

He then deals with the dialectic progression of the erotic understanding in music, and analyzes Mozart among others. Kierkegaard then deals with the Ancient's understanding of tragedy juxtaposed to the modern understanding of tragedy.

In "Shadowgraphs," Kierkegaard deals with the aesthetic elements of theater and the psychological development of the aforesaid in the subject. My two favorite essays, however, are the next two which are entitled "The Unhappiest One" and "Crop Rotation.

Both are written so fantastically that it hard not to agree with everything he says. My understanding of Either could only have developed after reading Or , and it's understandable why Kierkegaard got so mad seeing Danish bookstores lined with the former whilst the latter went neglected compared to the former.

They must be read in conjunction with one another, because all the ideas presented in both are not necessarily Kierkegaard's own ideas: this is a partial reason for the pseudonyms.

Since this was Kierkegaard's first major work, written mostly in Germany in a short amount of time while he was attending the Schelling lectures, the breakup with Regine, his then fiancee, would have been extremely fresh.

The aesthetic part of Either seems to be Kierkegaard's self-justification of the breakup, rationalizing that it was done in protection of Regine, and also, at the consummation of what Kierkegaard calls "first love.

Certainly, then, The Seducer's diary can be read in a but of an autobiographical flair, and indeed it writes like one, although often times Kierkegaard flips the subjects around.

What is more interesting is when I got to the Or portion. Written by a venerable Judge Wilhelm, they are two letters of correspondence to A, as in the 'novel' both the Judge and A are good friends, and A often comes over frequently to dine and spend time with the Judge and his wife.

The Judge systematically tries to refute the aesthetic in each theory postulated, and ultimately show the validity of marriage ethically and also aesthetically.

So far, then, it is not a matter of the choice of some thing, not a matter of the reality of the thing chosen, but of the reality of choosing.

It is this, though, that is decisive and what I shall try to awaken you to Through the absolute choice, then, the ethical is posited, but from that it by no means follows that the aesthetic is excluded.

In the ethical the personality is centered in itself; the aesthetic is thus excluded absolutely, or it is excluded as the absolute, but relatively it always stays behind.

The personality, through choosing itself, chooses itself ethically and excludes the aesthetic absolutely; but since it is, after all, he himself the person chooses and through choosing himself does not become another nature but remains himself, the whole of the aesthetic returns in its relativity" pp.

This is utterly brilliant, and to be sure, much of what Kierkegaard writes through the Judge are philosophical ideas that are further developed in his later works such as the movement from the aesthetic to the religious to the ethical in his Stages on Life's Way , and also the idea of choosing the self which lies in the infinite or absolute in The Sickness unto Death.

The idea that Judge defends from the above, and indeed throughout his two essays to A, is that the aesthetic cannot be chosen as the absolute, because it is not a choice at all, but rather a defiance or privation away from the absolute, and hence because the self is lost, it follows that the self cannot choose the aesthetic since their is no self to do the choosing.

Yet, when one postulates the ethical as the absolute, the self chooses absolutely because the choice is choosing yourself, which only can be found in the ethical, and because the ethical is the absolute, and the self is chosen, the aesthetic no thereby nullified as A would like to suppose, but is in fact affirmed, albeit in the relative sense of the subject.

And so it follows that marriage, which is the ethical choice, affirms both the ethical and the aesthetic, the moral and the sensual.

What is so paradoxical about all this is that Kierkegaard is writing this only because he was able to since he broke off engagement with his previous fiancee, Regine Olson.

Affirming the ethical validity of marriage, writing as the Judge, only after he denied it's validity practically by rejecting Regine.

Incidentally enough, Kierkegaard would later regret not marrying, which makes his aphorism in the beginning of the book all the more poignant and chagrin.

If you marry, you will regret it; if you do not marry, you will also regret it; if you marry or if you do not marry, you will regret both; whether you marry or you do not marry, you will regret both" p.

View 1 comment. Jan 28, Sean Blake rated it it was amazing Shelves: religion , philosophy , fiction. Soren Kierkegaard writes like a poet, which makes his philosophical writings so entertaining and enlightening to read.

A guide to a meaningful existence, Kierkegaard explores the aesthetic and ethical ideologies of life through two characters: A , the aesthetician and Judge Wilhelm , the ethicist.

Part I is an exploration of aesthetic ideologies discussing music, poetry, boredom and which also includes Diary of a Seducer , a lovely little psychological novel within the book in which a calculated aesthetician seducts and then rejects the love of a woman.

Here, he takes his time, in two long letters, to explain how we should live our life, the choices we make and the extremities of certain life views.

With this structure, Kierkegaard explores human nature philosophically, psychologically, religiously and poetically in his first published work. It's an exceptionally complex book but, in the end, it's extremely rewarding.

View 2 comments. Sep 09, AJ Griffin rated it really liked it. This is one of those books that you read that covers a bunch of things you had been thinking about on your own, at which point you realize "oh: i'm not really that smart, am I?

View all 3 comments. Mar 23, Khashayar Mohammadi rated it really liked it Shelves: favorites , essays , philosophy , writing-inspiration , faith-spirituality , scandinavian-lit.

Its definitely one of my all time favorites, not just philosophically, but over-all. Kierkegaard is more a writer than a philosopher, such that in poetic congruence with the themes of this book, his writing never ceases to be Aesthetic, but it does cease to be philosophical?

But does it really? The first few hundred pages leading up to the second part can be utterly confusing, since they only find meaning in opposition of the discourse of Judge Vilhelm.

Maybe I hesitate to give this book five stars merely because it has pulled a "twist ending" of sorts that forces me to re-read the first pages in order to fully understand the rest.

This book is in fact a thousand pages long. Though I can't say I cared much about the endless discourse on "Don Giovanni" Which ends up costing you a good couple hundred pages if you're in the same ship as I am , I found the last chapter, "The Equilibrium between the Aesthetic and the Ethical" to be breath-takingly eye-opening.

There were parts were a dozen pages were written with heart-piercing accuracy mocking the self-induced despair that we can still see to this day among us.

Its a fantastic book, and like all other books I have of Kierkegaard, it shall never leave my bedside table. Feb 17, Matt rated it really liked it Shelves: wisdom-philosophical-investigatons , worldly-lit , loose-baggy-monsters , existentialism.

This review has been hidden because it contains spoilers. To view it, click here. Astound the girl next door with my velvet suit and Faustus hood?

Not take her to movies, but to cemetaries Whether its better to settle down and get married or to try and live zestfully as a single person.

There are- fictiona "Should I get married, should I be good? There are- fictionally- two sets of letters here, a correspondence between youth and age.

One from a dashing young cynic and the other from a boring, somewhat pompous old provincial. Wonderful writing results, limitless insights. I'd quote them but I don't happen to have the book on hand.

The erotic in music, the hour when all masks fall and we are revealed to be who we are to ourselves, how marriage is of the mind as well as the spirit and the body, how all men are bores.

What makes this go down easy is the fact that Kierkegaard can write beautifully. Not only does he argue and reason himself out not like it's actually him, but it is Marriage, for one, is when you spend your entire day frowning over a book because there's an umlaut over one of the letters in a phrase that's not supposed to be there and suddenly your spouse comes in and you show it to them and they say 'O, look, it's just a speck of dust' and blows it away for good.

I'm not doing justice to this, but that's becuase I don't have enough personality! TO wit: Kierkegaard had a bad love affair early in life and spent the next few decades of his life living off his father's inheritance and writing philosophy under different pen names.

He even went so far as to use personalized grammer to create these characters, they did a linguistic analysis on it. But anyway he's literally speaking from different voices that manifest the ideas and conflicts he put himself through.

The aesthete, the cynic, the ethicist, the tortured soul, the man of god. He sat day after day writing away and adding voices to the symphony of his mind.

Amazing, right? No wonder he was a crazy genius. This is one of his first books, and its worth every moment of time spent on it. You'll enjoy, I'm sure.

Feb 16, Armin added it Shelves: ebooks. From Part Two: 1 The Aesthetic validity of marriage Marriage was constructed with highest in mind: lasting possession.

To conquer, one needs pride; to possess, humility. To conquer one needs to be violent; to possess, to have patience. To conquer, greed; to possess, contentment Pride lends itself superbly to representation, for what is essential in pride is not succession in time but intensity in the moment.

Humility is hard to represent just because it is indeed successive. In the case of h From Part Two: 1 The Aesthetic validity of marriage Marriage was constructed with highest in mind: lasting possession.

In the case of humility he really requires what poetry and art cannot provide, to see it in its constant process of becoming. Romantic love lends itself to representation in the moment; not so married love I can represent a hero conquering kingdoms; but a cross-bearer who everyday takes up his cross can never be represented, because the point of it is that he does it everyday.

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